Skin disturbance attributable to acne inflammation, cancer, sun harm, illness, wound injuries, surgery, wounds, incidents or chemical, dermabrasion or laser skin rejuvenation procedures, produces a signal to the innate immune system and activates responses that may or may not be successful in (a) preventing an immediate invasion of nearby microbes and (b) activating the substance
Mechanisms for dermal protection by antimicrobial peptides
Braff MH, Bardan A, Gallo RL, Nizet V. University of California San Diego, School of Pharmacy, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA. look at this site
Anti-microbial peptides are predominantly small cationic polypeptides that are clustered together because of their potential to inhibit microbe multiplication.
Antimicrobial peptides easily kill a large range of bacteria, fungi, and viruses as effectors of innate immunity. These peptides, in addition, modify the local inflammatory response and activate cellular and adaptive immune mechanisms. The most significant families of antimicrobial peptides in the dermis are cathelicidins and defensins, while antimicrobial effects are often demonstrated by other dermal peptides such as proteinase inhibitors, chemokines, and neuropeptides.
Together, these useful antimicrobial peptides perform a crucial function in the protection of skin immune systems and the pathogenesis of diseases.
Antimicrobial Skin Peptides: Biological Significance
A soluble barrier that acts as an impediment to infection is generated by antimicrobial peptides formed in the dermis at sites of possible microbial entry. In the case of an infection or cut, the existence of antimicrobial peptides in the dermis is upregulated by increased keratinocyte output and aggregation of recruited neutrophils due to degranulation. While antimicrobial peptides currently demonstrate in vitro antimicrobial activity, studies have shown that physiological salt concentrations are deactivated by several such peptides, including cathelicidins and defensins (Goldman et al, 1997).
In fact, recent research has shown that the mammalian dermis has a fundamental antimicrobial-enhancing component that, despite the existence of physiological salt and serum, turns bacteria susceptible to cathelicidin in vitro (Dorschner et al, 2004). Laboratory animal models and human dermal ailments also accentuate the in vivo importance of antimicrobial peptides in the physiological setting.
The role of biological immune response is significantly strengthened by a soluble barrier of antimicrobial peptides that is initiated when physical barriers fail to inhibit microbial entry.
Not only does the skin serve as a mechanical shield against bacteria, it also generates peptides that appear to exhibit antimicrobial activity across the wide spectrum. Development factors, inhibitors of tumors and proteins are often formed by the skin. Development factors are secreted after skin injury or wounds to promote tissue rejuvenation and to trigger the production of antimicrobial peptides. After rejuvenation of the tissue, the growth factor reaction stops as the physical shield protecting against microbial invasions is re-established.